Now that you know how the filesystem is laid out, you might be asking "that's great, but what can I do from terminal?". We are going to learn some useful commands to navigate the filesystem. The commands are:
pwd-- display the present working directory
cd-- change directory
ls-- list the files in the directory
It's important to remember that at all times in the bash shell, you are inside
a directory. You are always inside a directory in bash. The
pwd command is
used to show which directory you are currently in. Assuming you are using
bash, this should be your home directory.
Let's see what's in your home directory. Try typing
ls and pressing enter.
This will list all of the files and folders in the current directory.
dave@[datadyne]:~/$ ls bin/ how to raid/ opt rotate.sh scripts/ update.sh wireless/ code/ mpd.conf pythonweb/ sabres/ temp/ viridianplayer/ www
My home folder has a lot of files in it, this is because anything I'm working
on gets stored in my home directory. As you can see in my example the folders
have a / at the right of them, and the files don't. If this doesn't show up
for you try typing
ls -p without the single quotes, and it should. I'll talk
more about this later, but you gave the program
p switch, or the
option, which tells it to change the way it acts. Most programs have
options, and the letters for each program for their options can vary.
Let's move up on level. To do this we need to take advantage of the fact that
there are 2 special directories that exists inside every directory. These 2
special directories are
.. These are special because they are
. represents the current directory that you are in, and
represents the parent folder of your current folder. If you wanted to
reference a file called
words.txt in the current directory, you could call it
./words.txt, the computer will see them as the same thing.
But we want to go up a level, so we will type
cd ... This will change our
.., which moves us up one level. We started in /home/dave, and
after the command we will be in /home.
dave@[datadyne]:~/$ cd .. dave@[datadyne]:/home/$ pwd /home
Now that we are in /home we can run ls to see what folders exist in here.
dave@[datadyne]:/home/$ ls dave/
You can see that inside /home, only a folder called dave exists (the folder we were just in!)
Now that you have some navigation commands down, let's move on to creating files.